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CPU Profile

Contents

  1. CPU Profile
    1. Profile tree
    2. Tags
      1. Inspecting VM tags
      2. Defining user tags
      3. Configuring tag display
    3. Stub code
      1. InlineCacheStub / SubtypeTestCacheStub

The CPU profile tells you how the virtual machine (VM) has been spending its time when executing an isolate. The following video gives a brief overview of Observatory with some specific tips on how to use the profiling feature.


Observatory profiles an app by sampling the isolate at regular intervals. The sampled data is aggregated and displayed in a profile tree.

When Observatory samples the isolate, it saves the sampled data in a ring buffer, called the profile, which can hold up to two minutes worth of data. Once the buffer becomes full, the oldest samples are replaced with new samples.

At the top of the screen, a summary tells you a bit about how the data was gathered:

CPU profile screen

Refreshed at
The time of the last profile refresh.
Profile contains
The number of samples in the profile in the specified time span. The profile buffer holds a maximum of two minutes worth of samples.
Sampling
How often the isolate is sampled. The default, 1000 Hz, samples the isolate once per millisecond.
Mode
Presents the data by Function (default) or by Code.
Tag Order
Tags represent the different activities of the VM. This pulldown lets you control whether you want to see tags and how they should be displayed. For more information, see Displaying tags.

Profile tree

Below the summary is a two-column profile tree that reflects the activity of the sampled isolate. Each row in the tree is a VM tag, a user tag, or a function. A function can be native (C/C++) code or Dart code. You can expand or collapse nodes in the tree by clicking the arrows to the left.

The percentages on the left are the percent of calls to the parent. These percentages add up to 100%. The percentages on the right show the percentage of samples where the tag was active, or where the function was executing.

The following screenshot shows a sample profile tree with tags suppressed so that only function calls are displayed.

A profile tree with tags suppressed

Clicking the information button, the letter I inside a circle, to the right of an entry brings up detailed information about that entry.

The letter code, or codes, following each entry in the profile tree indicates how the processing work for that entry is categorized:

D
Dart code
I
inlined code
N
native code
O
optimized code
S
stub code
U
unoptimized code

Because tags are hidden in the previous screenshot, each row lists a function. The functions are listed in order from most CPU intensive to least.

The selected row in the previous screenshot shows the DynamicTree.query function. The percentage on the left shows that this function used .49% of the root isolate’s CPU time. The percentage on the right shows that .49% of the samples were taken while this function was active.

Note that, for the topmost level of the tree, the percentages in the right column are the same as those in the left column.

Clicking an arrow to the left of a function expands the tree to show the calling function. You can drill down the stack 8 levels deep, or until you reach the main function, whichever comes first.

While this information is useful, it is difficult to understand, at a high level, what is really going on. To help make sense of this information, tags are used to impose structure on the data so that you can more easily interpret where the VM is spending its time.

Tags

Tags help you understand the big picture of what is going on in an isolate. Observatory supports two kinds of tags. VM tags are predefined by Observatory, and user tags are custom tags that you create in your Dart code.

Inspecting VM tags

Observatory sorts the VM’s activities into categories of execution by labeling each activity with a predefined tag, called a VM tag.

The only VM tag that you have direct control over is the Dart tag, which indicates time spent executing your Dart code. The other categories (Native, Compile, VM, Runtime, GCNewSpace, and GCOldSpace) are activities performed by the VM on behalf of your application, such as compilation. For more information on these tags, see User and VM Tags.

The following screenshot shows a sample profile tree with the Default node expanded to show the activity of the VM tags:

A list of the default VM tags

In the previous screenshot, the VM has spent 99.73% of its time executing the application’s Dart code. If you expand the Dart node, the functions labeled with the Dart tag are displayed, listed from most CPU intensive to least. The following screenshot shows the the Script subtree:

A list of the default VM tags, with the Script tag expanded

The first function listed under the Dart tag, unitOfWork, used 97.05% of the entire Dart category. Also, 96.79% of all samples were made while this function was executing.

Defining user tags

You can also label your code with custom tags, called user tags, using the dart:developer library.

For more information, see User and VM tags.

Configuring tag display

Use the Tags pulldown to configure how the profile tree displays tags.

User > VM
The default. User-defined tags are displayed at the top level of the profile tree, as siblings to the Default category. The tags are listed from most CPU intensive to least. When you expand a top-level tag, you see the VM tags underneath.
User
The top level is the same as for User > VM, with the user-defined tabs listed as siblings to the Default category. However, when you expand a top-level tag, you see function calls listed, from most CPU intensive to least.
VM > User
Lists the VM tags only at the top level. When you expand a VM tag, you see user tags listed.
VM
Lists the VM tags only. User tags are hidden.
None
Hides all tags. The functions are displayed from most CPU intensive to least.

Stub code

Stubs are shared pieces of code used to implement common operations that are higher level than machine code operations, such as method lookup or allocation, or for transitioning between compiled Dart code and the C++ runtime. We expect a well-behaved Dart program we expect to spend most of its time in compiled Dart code or GC. If stubs are high in a profile, the program is likely spending a lot of time in unoptimized code or the runtime.

InlineCacheStub / SubtypeTestCacheStub

The first time a function is run, it is compiled without optimizations. Each call site or type test has a cache that remembers the results of method lookup or type tests for the concrete classes actually encountered. This avoids repeated lookups and collects type feedback for the optimizing compiler. If these stubs are high on your profile, your program is spending a lot of time in unoptimized code. This could be because your program executes a lot of different code with a low frequency that doesn’t trigger optimization.


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